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Earth And Earth Rock Dams Sherardl =LINK=


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Knowledge of soil, which is a basic construction material, has great importance for dam construction. It is one of the key factors of civilizations [1]. In the history of geology, there has been a close relationship between life and water from the perspective of the land and aquatic environment [2]. The soil is the critical element of life support systems because it delivers several ecosystem goods and services [3]. Soil properties diverse considerably under tillage type, intensity, different crops, fertilizer, and application rates [4]. It is well known that dam is one of irrigation infrastructure buildings with a type of weir structure that is affected by the fluctuating flow rates and water volumes of the river. Soil water evaporation curves both represent the laws of water content variation in the natural state [5]. Vital environmental protection and water management are constructed [6]. The occurrence of instability and the derailment of dam construction can exist when the strength of the structure is not in accordance with shear strength of the soil on the related site. It also gives nutrients on the sediments of the reservoir [7]. Besides the above things, however, many factors can cause failures and cracks in a dam body such as floods, earthquakes or explosions, human activities, and terrorist attacks against the dam [8]. Since dam is a part of geotechnical engineering in civil engineering, if a failure occurs which finally causes damage, it can be repaired by analyzing and designing the stability of the dam, including the factors that affect the stability of the dam [9]. It is closely related to the decrease of downstream taxa and uplifts the biomass [10].


According to Indonesian Government Regulation Number 37 Article 1 of 2010 about Dams, a dam is a building made of earth, rock, concrete, and/or stone pairs to hold and store water. It is also built to hold and accommodate mine waste (tailings) or collect mud to form a reservoir. A dam serves to function as a water catcher and saves the water during the rainy season when the river water flows in large quantities and exceeds the needs for use, irrigation, drinking water, industry, or others. In the Guidelines and General Criteria of Dam [11], the types of dam based on its function can be divided into the following:(a)water reservoir dam;(b)diversion dam;(c)flood control dam;(d)Multipurpose dam. 1e1e36bf2d